Understanding culture stress

Coping with culture shock

Globalization: Survival skills for missionaries, foreign exchange students and others working to weather cultural shock as they bridge cultural differences

This animated diagram illustrates two paths people take during the four phases of long-term cross-cultural encounters. The term "culture shock" was coined by Kalvero Oberg in 1954. It's a good label for the psychological experience of adults during the time of cultural adjustment that accompanies a period of cultural socialization or acculturation (which is different from the enculturation process experienced by children). The cultural adjustment period usually includes some disorientation brought on by such things as being confused as to where the cultural boundaries are.

The confusion and anxiety brought on by culture stress or shock may cause us to think, do or say things that are contrary to God's purpose.

diagram showing how cultural adjustment can

For a non-animated version of this diagram, click here. Diagram is used by permission from Duane Elmer's Cross-Cultural Connections (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2002), 72) and under the "fair use" provisions for educational purposes of copyright laws.

Symptoms of culture shock:

Stages most people go through in adjusting to a new culture

  1. Fun: The excitement and adventure of experiencing new people, things, and opportunities.
  2. Flight: Disorientation brings the urge to avoid everything and everyone that is different.
  3. Fight: The temptation to judge people and things that are different as bad or foolish
  4. .
  5. Fit: Creative interaction with the new culture that includes a willingness to understand and embrace.

"One of the best defenses [against severe culture shock] is knowledge. . . Know what you are likely to experience" — Diana Newlon, Nazarene Bible College student

Coping strategy for culture shock: Survival techniques

How can we cope with the disorientation of adjusting to a new culture? Having information about culture shock is a first important step. Attempting to distance ourselves from an ethnocentric perspective will help. Then, to successfully cope, let's make sure our attitudes mirror those suggested in green and red in the top half of the diagram. As you work through cultural socialization, follow these tips on surviving situations where verbal and non-verbal cues and codes are unfamiliar to you:

Focus on what you can control.
When we suffer culture shock, we often feel out of control. So, don't spend energy on things you cannot change.
Don't invest major energy in minor problems.
Don't make "mountains out of molehills" more quickly in cross-cultural situations than you do in your own culture.
Tackle major stressors head on.
Don't avoid things.
Ask for help.
Create a support network as quickly as you can in your target culture. This can include expatriates like yourself as well as people of the local culture.
Write it down.
Record your thoughts and frustrations in a journal. This will give you a healthy outlet for expressing your feelings.

Knowing how to survive culture shock or stress can be useful to missionaries as well as to aiding foreign students who come to our country to study.

Help from the Bible

Can Holy Scripture help us with cross-cultural adjustment? Well, the book of Acts would be a good place to start. It has several examples of cultural adjustment or socialization. Paul, who grew up in modern-day Turkey and then was educated in Jerusalem, moved around the Mediterranean planting churches in different cultural contexts. To the Philippians he wrote: "I learned to be content whatever the circumstances." (Philippians 4:11). As Paul coped with various cultural issues, he was also dogged by Jewish Christians from Israel who tried to force Gentile converts to become Jewish (in which case Christianity would have been a mono-cultural movement).

Another relevant Biblical event is the story of Ruth. Here's a young woman who left her home country and culture and moved to Israel and wound up ultimately being in the list of Jesus' ancestors!

Other Bible stories to ponder include:

LinksReverse culture shock and how to copy with it at home - AbbeyRoad programs

Reverse culture shock is what people often experience when returning to their home culture after living in another for a period of time. That can be a long process. A 60-year old MK (Missionary Kid) wrote, "My parents took us to Brazil when I was seven. The work of adjusting back to the States seems never quite over."

How do you know you're making progress toward cross-cultural understanding?

arrow pointing rightMoving from ethnocentric monoculturalism to joyfully embracing multi-culturalism is not done with one huge leap. It is a journey of small steps.

arrow pointing right></a></td><td class=Personal experiences with culture shock in Italy

Cultural Anthropology course resources:    Cultural adjustment realities    Cultural bingo icebreaker    Bwanda Fusa game   Cultural anthropology case studies   Christianity and culture   The path to cross-cultural adjustment   Ethnocentrism and mooculturalism    Exam study guides    Cultural Anthropology FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)   Iceberg and concentric circles culture models   Light bulb illustration: What do you see?   World missions and culture    My own culture shock   PowerPoint presentations used in class   Reading report   Reentry: Coming home   Research paper topic auggestions   Becoming a minority of one
Readings:   "Contextualization"    "Ethics of change"    "Mission"   "Points of view"   "Responsibility"    "Value"

Short term missions resources    10/40 Window explanation and map