The 10 Commandments (abbreviated form for memorization)

10 Commandment
tabletsThis abbreviated version of the Decalogue -- the 10 Commandments -- will be recited aloud in unison at the beginning of almost every class period in Introduction to Biblical Literature.

The Ten Commandments (decalogue=10 words) can be found in Exodus 20 in the Old Testament (sometimes called the Hebrew Bible). The full version in Exodus 20 has about 300 words while the briefer version below has has just over 70 words.

  1. You shall have no other Gods before me
  2. You shall not make for yourselves an idol
  3. You shall not misuse the name of the LORD your God
  4. Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy
  5. Honor your father and your mother
  6. You shall not murder
  7. You shall not commit adultery
  8. You shall not steal
  9. You shall not give false testimony
  10. You shall not covet

Reflections on the meaning of the word "Torah," a word we often translate as "Law"

Exodus 20:1-11

20 1 And God spoke all these words:

2 "I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of Egypt, out of the land of slavery.

3 "You shall have no other gods before me.

4 "You shall not make for yourself an image in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below. 5 You shall not bow down to them or worship them; for I, the Lord your God, am a jealous God, punishing the children for the sin of the parents to the third and fourth generation of those who hate me, 6 but showing love to a thousand generations of those who love me and keep my commandments.

7 "You shall not misuse the name of the Lord your God, for the Lord will not hold anyone guiltless who misuses his name.

8 "Remember the Sabbath day by keeping it holy. 9 Six days you shall labor and do all your work, 10 but the seventh day is a sabbath to the Lord your God. On it you shall not do any work, neither you, nor your son or daughter, nor your male or female servant, nor your animals, nor any foreigner residing in your towns. 11 For in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, the sea, and all that is in them, but he rested on the seventh day. Therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and made it holy.

Week 43 (October)

They are not aware of it, but most Italians' theological beliefs are rooted more in an epic poem by Dante Alighieri than they are in the Bible.

In The Inferno, written in the 14th century, Dante tells the story of the Roman poet Virgil leading Dante on a guided tour through Hell, Purgatory, and Paradise.

The epic poem's medieval view of God, man, sin, punishment, and reward is also reflected in many of the paintings and frescoes one sees today in Italian churches.

Many Italians' understanding of God is that of an almighty DON'T. For them, God is an angry Creator who is itching to shoot us down at the slightest misstep. He's somewhat kept in check by the saints and Mary who are interceding for us.

Well, God is "shooting" at us, all right, but not in that sense. Torah, the Hebrew word we translate "law," has its roots in a verb which can mean "to shoot." That verb also means "to teach." Thus, in trying to understand the Torah, we might say that when God is revealing truth or teaching His people, He is shooting ideas from His own mind into ours. In this light, our translation of Torah as "law" is a bit poverty-stricken in meaning, since Torah also denotes teaching and revelation.

At the heart of the Torah -- a name the Jews apply to the books attributed to Moses -- are the Ten Commandments received at Mount Sinai. Using these fundamental principles -- sometimes called the Decalogue ("ten words") -- as a mirror of the mind of God, it is clear that because He is our Creator, God has claims upon every facet of our lives.

God does not want us to be mere soulless slaves of the law or slaves to a divine despot. Even a superficial reading of the Ten Commandments makes clear that these principles correspond to humanity's central needs. They are not an impossible set of demands. They are not meant for angels or a very few people of superior piety (while the rest of us have to pass through purgatory for our inability to observe them properly).

A sad relic of this mistaken belief exists in Rome, not far from the American embassy. On the level just below the sanctuary of the Church of Santa Maria della Concezione is a little arched corridor. Along this corridor are five small alcoves whose floors are covered with dirt from the Holy Land. The walls and ceilings of the corridor and of the alcoves are completely covered with various Christian symbols including crucifixes, a crown of thorns, the Greek letters of Christ's name, and an angel of death. What is startling about these designs is that they are all formed from human bones.

monks' bones used
create a grim reaper on the wall of a church in Rome
Dcorations made of human bones in Rome's Church of St. Mary of the Conception.

Attached to the wall is a little placard explaining the "cemetery." Among other details is the fact that the skeletal remains of an estimate 4,000 Capuchin monks are "buried" there, "some of whom," the placard says, "were holy men."

What a difference from the Jewish understanding of the Torah! Godly Jews saw the Torah as the way of holiness, whose wisdom and guidance were for all people, even the most ordinary. [ Nine audio sermons on holiness ]

God is shooting at us. He's shooting His wisdom, a code of ethics, and a revelation of himself. I pray that I'll be a clear enough target for Him to hit squarely!

The author wrote these devotional thoughts while serving as a missionary in Italy. They were published as part of a series in Standard, a take-home curriculum piece for adult Sunday school classes published by what is now called The Foundry..

    -- Howard Culbertson

"He declared to you his covenant, the Ten Commandments." -- Deuteronomy 4:13

"In the Law, love warns; in the cross it redeems. Both are the true mirror of Him who thus defines His own character: God is love.'" -- Guthrie, quoted in Illustrative Notes: A Guide to the Study of the Sunday-school Lessons for 1893 by Jesse Lyman Hurlbut, Robert Remington

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